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罗伯特·科赫奖

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1 拼音

luó bó tè ·kē hè jiǎng

2 英文参考

Robert Koch Awards

1882年,罗伯特·科赫发现结核菌是医学史上的一大亮点。这一研究为结核病这种严重的传染病的治疗指明了道路。1907年,罗伯特·科赫基金会(Robert Koch Foundation)创立,1960年基金会开始颁发罗伯特·科赫奖(Robert Koch Awards),1970年后颁奖时间改为每年一次,旨在奖励生物医学领域,特别是微生物免疫学领域的重大研究进展。科赫奖的部分获奖者之后也获得诺贝尔奖,而罗伯特·科赫本人作为微生物学的创始人之一,曾因为发现结核病而荣获1905年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖

罗伯特·科赫基金会网址:http://www.robert-koch-stiftung.de/

Robert Koch

3 历届罗伯特·科赫奖

3.1 2011年

来自美国耶鲁大学医学院的乔治·格兰(Jorge Galán)教授因为其“在微生物领域特别是在感染过程中的分子分析方面的基础研究中,对细胞微生物学这门学科的创建所作出的贡献”而荣获该奖,他将得到10万欧元的奖金;同时,国际人类前沿科学计划组织(HFSPO)的秘书长厄恩斯特—路德维格·温纳克(Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker)则由于“其所做研究促进了分子生物学基因工程的发展”而被授予2011年度罗伯特·科赫金质奖章(Robert Koch Gold Medal)。

3.2 2010年

Robert Koch Award

Professor Cooper, a fundamental researcher in immunology and infection biology at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, was awarded the Robert Koch Medal and prize money in recognition of his pioneering studies into evolution and development of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. The immunologist has also made a series of discoveries which contribute to understanding how white blood cells (leukocytes) combat infections in the body and how they degenerate in leukaemia (blood cancer) and lymphomas (cancer of the lymph nodes) and attack the patient’s body in autoimmune diseases. Cooper also laid the foundations for much important progress in illuminating infectious diseases and developing vaccines. 

Currently, Cooper and his team are studying a new class of antibody-like proteins produced by the immune systems of certain fish, the eel-like lamprey and hagfish. The proteins have unique properties, which may be useful in diagnosing and treating infectious diseases in humans.

Robert Koch Gold Medal

In recognition of his life’s work in researching insect immunogenomics, Professor Kafatos of the Chair of Genomics and Immunoregulation at Imperial College in London was awarded the Robert Koch Gold Medal. The scientist was also President of the European Research Council from 2007 to 2010.

By discovering many genes, his research contributed to a better understanding of the immune system of the anopheles species of malaria mosquito. When the mosquito absorbs the plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria, by consuming human blood, the parasite can multiply by deactivating certain genes in the insect, while no multiplication occurs if other genes are deactivated. The objectives of the research include using genetic or chemical processes to deactivate the genes which promote multiplication of the parasites, thus preventing the transmission of malaria.

3.3 2009年

Robert Koch Award

Dr. Nathan, Chairman of Microbiology and Immunology and Professor of Microbiology at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City, USA, has been honored for his groundbreaking research into the mechanisms of antibacterial infection resistance. He was able to show that an inorganic gas, nitrogen monoxide (NO), is formed by activated macrophages and plays a role in defending the body against pathogens.

Although macrophages attack the microbes with chemicals such as NO, tuberculosis bacteria are able to dodge the body’s immune defenses and embed themselves as dormant pathogens in the macrophages. They use mycobacterial metallothionein (MymT), the protein isolated by Dr. Nathan, to act as a barrier against attack by the macrophages. A further discovery made by Dr. Nathan and his team is the enzyme dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DlaT), which provides the tuberculosis bacteria with energy and also helps to protect them against attack by the immune cells. The scientists are now looking for active substances which inhibit DlaT and can thus destroy pathogens which have entered the body.

Robert Koch Gold Medal

Professor Volker ter Meulen of Würzburg University has been awarded the Robert Koch Gold Medal for his life’s work in investigating the neuronal persistence of viral infections. The virologist is one of the leading researchers in the field of viral infections of the central nervous system. These include diseases such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and infections caused by coronaviruses and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Through his work, Professor ter Meulen was able to show that measles viruses switch off the body’s immune defenses with glycoproteins which inhibit the formation of lymphocytes. This was a pioneering discovery because it revealed a new principle by which the immune system can be suppressed.

Following his career in university research, Professor ter Meulen became president of the renowned Leopoldina in Halle, Germany. Prior to the G8 Summit in Germany in 2007, he invited his counterparts from the participating nations and emerging economies to issue a joint declaration on climate protection. His commitment was rewarded when the Leopoldina was nominatet as Germany’s National Academy of Sciences in 2008.

The Robert Koch Award and Gold Medal, which are presented annually, are among the most prestigious scientific awards in Germany. The foundation, which stands under the patronage of German President Professor Horst Köhler, is dedicated to promoting basic research into infectious diseases and other widespread diseases.

The awards are named after the scientist who was one of the founders of modern bacteriology. Robert Koch (1843 to 1910) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 in recognition of his achievements. He discovered the anthrax bacillus in 1876 and isolated tuberculosis bacteria in 1882. From 1883 onwards, Koch devoted himself to research into other infectious diseases such as cholera. From 1891 until he retired in 1904, he was Director of the Institute of Infectious Diseases in Berlin.

3.4 2008年

Robert Koch Award 

Professor Schöler, who is Director of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Biomedicine in Münster, received the prize in recognition of his pioneering research into the isolation, induction and functional analysis of stem cells. His scientific achievements include the discovery of the transcription factor Oct4, which plays a key role in the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells. This discovery has served as a basis for further research, including his work on cell reprogramming. Professor Schöler was recently able to show that, with the aid of just two genes known as Oct4 und Klf4, adult mouse cells can be returned to a primordial embryonic-like state, with markedly reduced use of viruses. There are many arguments in favor of dispensing with such gene vectors. It would avoid one of the major risks associated with future stem cell therapies, whereby the injected cells develop into tumors. Professor Schöler’s long-term goal is to transform many different somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells and, as a result, to develop a safer therapy for many diseases.

Professor Yamanaka from the Department of Stem Cell Biology at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences at the University of Kyoto in Japan, receives the prize for his pioneering research into the induction and functional analysis of pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells. Two years ago, he and his team were the first to succeed in reprogramming mature skin cells from mice. These then acted like embryonic stem cells and were able to form each of the body’s 200 or so different cell types such as nerve cells, muscle cells and cartilage cells. A year later, Professor Yamanaka was able to show that this method also works with human skin cells. His technique was surprisingly simple: the production of pluripotent stem cells required neither eggs nor embryos. The skin cells were reprogrammed into all-rounders simply by inserting four genes, Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4, into their genetic material.

Professor Weissman, who is Director of Cancer/Stem Cell Biology and Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine, USA, received the prize in recognition of his pioneering research into the phylogeny and developmental biology of stem cells of the blood and immune system. Professor Weissman developed a method for isolating stem cells for the hemopoietic system in mice and humans. He also discovered stem cells for nerve tissue, muscles and other organs. Furthermore, Professor Weissman managed to show that a single stem cell can divide into thousands of stem cells that then form many millions of blood cells. He also characterized the surface structure of tumor stem cells. This advance allowed high-level purification of human stem cells, for example the cells of the hemopoietic system. Purification is nowadays indispensable, so that stem cells from healthy donors can be transplanted into leukemia patients. This lowers the incidence of life-threatening side effects and consequently increases therapeutic benefit.

Robert Koch Gold Medal

Professor Philip Leder, of the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School in Boston, USA, received the Robert Koch Gold Medal for his fundamental scientific contributions to modern molecular biomedicine. His name was linked with the deciphering of the genetic code in the early 1960s. In particular, he has made a crucial contribution to modern molecular tumor research. This included the development of the first transgenic mouse to carry a human oncogene in 1984. The OncoMouse, which spontaneously develops breast tumors, constituted a pioneering feat for molecular cancer research and the search for potentially new medicines. In the last few years, Professor Leder has turned his attention to the correlation between oxygen supply and carbohydrate metabolism in tumor cells, which is essential for the growth of cancer cells. This, too, could be used therapeutically in the future.

The Robert Koch Award and Gold Medal, which are awarded annually, are among the most prestigious scientific awards in Germany. The foundation, which stands under the patronage of German President Horst Köhler, is dedicated to promoting basic research into infectious diseases and other widespread diseases. 

The awards are named after the scientist who was one of the founders of modern bacteriology. Robert Koch (1843 to 1910) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 in recognition of his achievements. He discovered the anthrax bacillus in 1876 and isolated tuberculosis bacteria in 1882. From 1883 onwards, Koch devoted himself to research into other infectious diseases such as cholera. From 1891 until he retired in 1904, he was Director of the Institute of Infectious Diseases in Berlin.

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